Source References

1
Obituary in The Observer (Adelaide, Australia), 7 September 1918, and The Register (Adelaide, Australia), 9 September 1918.
2
Obituary in The Times (London, England), 3 September 1918.
3
In an article written by Christmas entitled "Sketching Tour on the Murray: 300 Miles in a Dinghy" he writes "Though quite alone, without a knowledge of any human inhabitant for many miles around, I spent an enjoyable time. My gun, canvas, and fishing-tackle were ample companions." The South Australian Register 4 Jun 1892.
4
Christmas's own comments illustrate his easy-going nature (for example, from the same source as footnote 3, he tells of how he fell in with "a sporting party for a few days, who went some miles down the river and indulged in some real good sport"), whilst the obituaries published in Hawaii when he died there all remark on his geniality (for example, in the Maui News obituary of 2 August 1918 "the artist was of a friendly and kindly nature, and he made friends wherever he went, who will learn of his demise with deep regret").
5
"Evening Post", Wellington, New Zealand, 9 November 1906 p.4;
"The New Zealand Freelance", 7 December 1907;
"Otago Witness", New Zealand, 27 March 1907;
"Taranaki Herald", 15 May 1908 p.4;
"Wanganui Herald", New Zealand, 21 July 1908 p.4; and
"The Observer", Adelaide, South Australia, 24 February 1906 p.309
See also details regarding Christmas's visit to New Zealand in 1906 in Section "Further Afield".
6
"Evening Post", Wellington, New Zealand, 6 January 1907 p.6.
7
Argentina Past and Present by W H Koebel (London: Adam and Charles Black. Second edition: 1914) features 32 colour illustrations of paintings by Christmas.
8
See details of Christmas's time in Hawaii in 1916-18.
8
See details of Christmas' visit to Europe in 1899-1902.
10
During his visit to Europe between 1899-1902, Christmas met his fellow South Australian artist, Hans Heysen (1877-1968) for whom he conveyed work to the Edinburgh picture-dealer Aitken Dott. "About Art and Artists: A Talk with Mr E W Christmas", The Advertiser (Adelaide, Australia) 18 September 1903.
11
The American artist Clyde Leon Keller (1872-1962) included Christmas's name on his business cards as that of one of his teachers. Correspondnce with Clyde Keller, grandson of Clyde Leon Keller.
12
Birth certificate of Ernest William Christmas.
13
Biographical Index of South Australians 1836-1885 edited by Jill Statton. (Marden, South Australia : South Australian Genealogy and Heraldry Society, 1986).
14
Biographical Index of South Australians 1836-1885 edited by Jill Statton. (Marden, South Australia : South Australian Genealogy and Heraldry Society, 1986).
15
Copper City Chronicle - A History of Kadina by K Bailey, 1990.
16
South Australian Births – Index of Registrations 1842-1906 (South Australian Genealogy & Heraldry Society Inc.)
The time of the Christmas family's move to Kadina can be deduced as being about 1874 from the location of the births of Christmas' younger siblings. This would make Christmas 11 years old, rather than the 7 years cited in a number of obituaries.
17
Obituary in The Observer (Adelaide, Australia), 7 September 1918, and The Register (Adelaide, Australia), 9 September 1918.
18
"A South Australian Artist: Mr E W Christmas" in The South Australian Register (Adelaide, Australia) 19 Jul 1899.

For further information about the Ruby Rush, refer to: Rubies and the Ruby Rush

19
Entry for E W Christmas in Who Was Who(1916-1928).
20
Christmas wrote an article about this trip, "Sketching Tour on the Murray: 300 Miles in a Dinghy" published in The South Australian Register on 4 Jun 1892. In it he indicates his familiarity with Johnstone's work by referring to certain sections as "Johnstonian" parts of the river and implies some admiration of Johnstone's work when he remarks "Though truthfully as Johnstone portrayed his subjects there is yet a variety of scenes which will take long study and a clever hand to bring them out as faithfully as he has treated his."
21
"Evening Post", Wellington, New Zealand, 14 December 1895 p.6.
22
"Mr E W Christmas's Pictures" reviewed in The Express (Adelaide, Australia) 31 July 1895.
23
"Taranaki Herald", New Zealand, 15 May 1908 p.4.
24
"A South Australian Artist: Mr E W Christmas" in The South Australian Register (Adelaide, Australia) 19 Jul 1899.
25
"A South Australian Artist: Mr E W Christmas" in The South Australian Register (Adelaide, Australia) 19 Jul 1899.
26
In an interview with Christmas, "A South Australian Artist: Mr E W Christmas" published in The South Australian Register (Adelaide, Australia) 19 July 1899, it is stated that Christmas "became very fond of the Maoris. They were exceedingly kind to him, and he will never forget this fine intelligent race, which is being civilised off the face of the earth."
27
"Otago Witness", New Zealand, 23 April 1896.
28
"A South Australian Artist: Mr E W Christmas" in The South Australian Register (Adelaide, Australia) 19 Jul 1899.
29
Quotations from newspapers cited in the catalogue to E W Christmas's exhibition at Bendigo, April 1899.
30
"A South Australian Artist: Mr E W Christmas" in The South Australian Register (Adelaide, Australia) 19 Jul 1899.

L'Exposition Universelle de 1900: a world fair held in Paris from 15 April to 12 November 1900. This event included a retrospective exposition of French Arts and also featured, for example, the first showing of motion pictures in the Grand Palais and sideshows of the Second Olympic Games.

31
"About Art and Artists: A Talk with Mr E W Christmas" The Advertiser (Adelaide, Australia) 18 September 1903;

"Evening Post", New Zealand, 3 August 1905.

32
Interviews with E W Christmas in Table Talk (Melbourne, Australia) November 1902 and "About Art and Artists: A Talk with Mr E W Christmas" in The Advertiser (Adelaide, Australia) 18 September 1903.
33
"About Art and Artists: A Talk with Mr E W Christmas" in The Advertiser (Adelaide, Australia) 18 September 1903.

Sir Edward Poynter (1836-1919) was Director of the National Gallery 1894-1905 and in 1896 appointed President of the Royal Academy.
Sir James Guthrie (1859-1930) was a follower of the Glasgow School and a notable portraitist. He was appointed President of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1902.
Sir John Lavery (1856-1941) was a portrait painter of the Glasgow School. His work, especially conversational pieces and paintings of women, was very popular.
Alfred Parsons, (1849-1913) an English landscape painter, watercolourist, illustrator and garden designer, was President of the Society of Water Colour in 1905.
Sir Alfred East, (1847-1920) an English painter and etcher who studied at the Glasgow School of Art, wrote in 1906 The Art of Landscape Painting in Oil Colour.

34
"About Art and Artists: A Talk with Mr E W Christmas" in The Advertiser (Adelaide, Australia) 18 September 1903.
35
"A South Australian Artist", The Observer (Adelaide, Australia) 24 February 1906.
36
Interview with E W Christmas in Table Talk (Melbourne, Australia) November 1902.
37
"About Art and Artists: A Talk with Mr E W Christmas" in The Advertiser (Adelaide, Australia) 18 September 1903.
38
"Evening Post", Wellington, New Zealand, 9 November 1906 p.4;
"The New Zealand Freelance", 7 December 1907;
"Otago Witness", New Zealand, 27 March 1907;
"Taranaki Herald", 15 May 1908 p.4;
"Wanganui Herald", New Zealand, 21 July 1908 p.4; and
"The Observer", Adelaide, South Australia, 24 February 1906 p.309
39
"Evening Post", Wellington, New Zealand, 23 September 1905;
"Taranaki Herald", New Zealand, 23 September 1905; and
"Wanganui Herald", New Zealand, 23 September 1905
40
"A South Australian Artist", The Observer (Adelaide, Australia) 24 February 1906.
41
Unidentified directory of New Zealand artists, page 66.
42
Entry for E W Christmas in Who Was Who (1916-1928).
43
As evidenced by E W Christmas' paintings in W H Koebel's Argentina Past and Present (London: Adam and Charles Black. Second edition: 1914).
44
Unidentified newspaper cutting stuck to the back of E W Christmas' painting Los Penitentes.
45
"Evening Post", Wellington, New Zealand, 2 November 1911 p.2.
46
Born in Paradise by Armine von Tempski (Woodbridge, Connecticut, USA: Ox Bow Press, 1985).
47
"Evening Post", Wellington, New Zealand, 7 October 1913 p.7
48
Manifest of S S Olympic on arriving in New York, December 1913. The manifest entry states that Christmas had not previously visited the United States, although Edan Milton Hughes, in his Artists in California, 1786-1940 suggests that Christmas had been in San Francisco "at the turn of the century."

The manifest is also interesting for the revelation that Christmas was missing part of his right thumb!

49
Cited in various obituary notices. Ben Macomber in his book "The Jewel City" concerning the San Francisco Exposition described the picture as "interesting."
50
Obituary in the Honolulu Advertiser (Hawaii) 2 August 1918.
51
Obituary in the Maui News (Hawaii) 2 August 1918.
52
"Local Artist Designs Striking Food Saving Poster" Maui News (Hawaii) 10 May 1918.

The Online Catalogue of the Bishop's Museum, Honolulu records the picture as the Sinking of the Lusitania

53
"An Adventurer For Art's Sake" in Paradise Of The Pacific (Honolulu, Hawaii) December 1918.
54
Born in Paradise by Armine von Tempski (Woodbridge, Connecticut, USA: Ox Bow Press, 1985).
55
Born in Paradise by Armine von Tempski (Woodbridge, Connecticut, USA: Ox Bow Press, 1985).
56
Obituary in the Honolulu Advertiser (Hawaii) 2 August 1918.
57
Obituary in the Honolulu Advertiser (Hawaii) 2 August 1918.
58
Obituary in the Honolulu Advertiser (Hawaii) 2 August 1918.
59
Obituary in the Honolulu Advertiser (Hawaii) 2 August 1918.
60
Death certificate of Ernest William Christmas. On this certificate his name is incorrectly recorded as Ernst, an error which has unfortunately been taken up and repeated in some current reference sources.
61
Obituary in the Honolulu Advertiser (Hawaii) 2 August 1918.
62
Correspondence with the late Marjery Hastert of Hawaii.