1. Books

Who Was Who (1916-1928) (London: A & C Black, 1929)

Encyclopedia of Australian Art Volume One A-K by Alan McCulloch (Hawthorn, Victoria: Hutchinson of Australia, 1984)

Artists in California, 1786-1940 by Edan Milton Hughes (Sacramento, CA: Crocker Art Museum, 2002)

Allgemeines Künstler-Lexicon: die bildenden Künstler aller Zeiten und Völker (München: K G Saur, 2002)

Dictionary of British Artists Working 1900-1950 by Grant M Waters (Eastbourne: Eastbourne Fine Art Publications, 1975)

Royal Academy Exhibitors 1905-1970 Volume II CAS-D (East Ardsley, Wakefield: E P Publishing Limited, 1977)

The Dictionary of British Artists 1880-1940 by J Johnson & A Greutzner (Woodbridge, Suffolk: Antique Collectors' Club, 1976)

Royal Society of British Artists Members Exhibiting 1893-1910 by Maurice Bradshaw (Leigh-on-Sea: F Lewis, 1975)

Royal Society of British Artists Members Exhibiting 1911-1930 by Maurice Bradshaw (Leigh-on-Sea: F Lewis, 1975)

Art Sales Index (Weybridge: Art Sales Index)

Biographical Index of South Australians 1836-1885 edited by Jill Statton. (Marden, South Australia : South Australian Genealogy and Heraldry Society, 1986)

Register of Personal Notices 1836-1870 by Reg Butler & Alan Phillips (Gumeracha, South Australia: Gould Books, 1989)

South Australian Births – Index of Registrations 1842-1906 (South Australian Genealogy & Heraldry Society Inc.)

South Australian Deaths – Index of Registrations 1842-1915 (South Australian Genealogy & Heraldry Society Inc.)

Born in Paradise by Armine von Tempski (Woodbridge, Connecticut, USA: Ox Bow Press, 1985)

Argentina Past and Present by W H Koebel (London: Adam & Charles Black, 1914)

The Jewel City by Ben Macomber (San Francisco 1915); The Jewel City online edition

Copper City Chronicle - A History of Kadina by K Bailey, 1990

Encounters with Paradise: Views of Hawaill and its People, 1778-1941 by David W Forbes ISBN-10: 0824814401 University of Hawaii Press, 1992

Unidentified biographical dictionary of artists in New Zealand

2. Newspapers and Magazines

The Times (London, 3 September 1918)

The Age (Melbourne, 1 September, 30 October, 1 & 10 November 1902) Online Extracts September & October; Online Extracts November

The Evening Post (Wellington, New Zealand) Online Copies 1865-1915

New Zealand Freelance (New Zealand) Online Copies 1900-1909

North Otago Times (New Zealand) Online Copies 1864-1900

Otago Witness (New Zealand) Online Copies 1851-1909

Taraniki Herald (New Zealand) Online Copies 1852-1909

Tuapeka Times (New Zealand) Online Copies 1868-1909

Wanganui Herald (New Zealand) Online Copies 1876-1909

West Coast Times (New Zealand) Online Copies 1865-1909

Grey River Argus (New Zealand) Online Copies 1866-1920 24 August 1896

The Brisbane Courier (Australia) 3 August 1897

The Argus (Melbourne, Australia) Online Copies

Table Talk (Melbourne, November 1902)

The Observer (Adelaide, 24 February 1906 & 7 September 1918)

The South Australian Register (Adelaide, 4 June 1892, 19 July 1899), and under its revised name The Register (10 September 1904 & 5 September 1918)

The Express & Telegraph (Adelaide, 31 July 1895 & 19 October 1892)

The Advertiser (Adelaide, 18 September 1903)

Honolulu Advertiser (16 & 23 December 1917 & 30 July 1918)

Maui News (28 September & 30 November 1917, 10 May & 2 August 1918)

"An Adventurer for Art's Sake" in Paradise of the Pacific (December 1918)

The Studio Vol 49 No 206 Page 308 (May 1910)

Unidentified newspaper cutting on rear of E W Christmas's painting Los Penitentes

3. Directories

Kelly's Directory of Chiswick, Gunnersbury and Hounslow (London, 1910 & 1911)

The City Directory for Honolulu and Hawaii (1917)

4. Exhibition Catalogues

Catalogue of E W Christmas's exhibition at Bendigo, April 1899

Canterbury Society of Arts Annual Exhibition, 1907

The Royal Institute of Oil Painters: A Catalogue of the 27th Exhibition (1909)

The Royal Institute of Oil Painters: A Catalogue of the 28th Exhibition (1910)

The Royal Academy Annual Exhibition (1910 and 1911)

City of Hull Municipal Art Gallery: Catalogue of Inaugural Exhibition of Paintings (1910)

City Art Gallery, Leeds: Catalogue of the Spring Exhibition (1910)

South Australian Society of Arts: Catalogue of the 23rd Annual and Federal Exhibition (Nov-Dec 1920)

5. Record Sources

Register of Baptisms, Gedney Hill, Lincolnshire – 1838

1851 Census Gedney Drove End, Lincolnshire

1901 Census St Giles, Cripplegate

Certificate of birth, issued Yankalilla, 12 February 1863

Certificate of death, issued Honolulu, 30 July 1918

Registered will at Principal Probate Registry, London

Register of admission and discharge, The Queen's Hospital, Honolulu, Hawaii

6. Websites

Ellis Island Records : New York immigration records

Ask Art : Entry for Ernst (sic) Christmas in Ask Art, an online resource for information about artists living or working in the United States

Art Price : Entry for Ernest Christmas in, a provider of art market information

Australian Art Sales Digest : Record of art sold at auction in Australia and New zealand

The Ships' List : Ship passenger lists

Unassisted Immigration to Victoria : Index of Inward Passenger Lists for British, Foreign and New Zealand Ports 1852-1923

London Sketch Club : Article about the Langham Sketching Club

New South Wales Government Records

The State Library of South Australia

National Library of New Zealand : Copies of various New Zealand newspapers 1840-1915

National Library of Australia: Digitised copies of various Australia newspapers

Public Record Office, Victoria, Australia

Zurbaran Gallery, Argentina : News item 12 March 2004

Los Andes Online 4 March 2004 : Article (in Spanish) about the E W Christmas painting El Christo de Los Andes on display at an exhibition in Argentina in 2004

International Art Centre : New Zealand Auction House

Find My Past : Genealogical Website

Dictionary of Australian Artists Online

7. Acknowledgements

The assistance of the following individuals who, and institutions which, have corresponded with the website author over the years is hereby gratefully acknowledged:

Pamela Whittle, South Australia

The late Gaynor Whisson, South Australia

David Thomas of Bendigo Art Gallery, Victoria, Australia

Bronwyn Ringwood, Queensland, Australia

The late Marjery Hastert, Hawaii

David W Forbes, Hawaii

Clyde Keller, Oregon, USA

Richard Thomson, International Art Centre, New Zealand

Andrew Davidson, Australia

Catherine Masterson, USA

Bert Willemse, New Zealand

Rodney Martin, Australia

Chas Page, New Zealand

Kerry Dixon, Australia

Barbara Lawrance, Australia

Toni Quinlan, New Zealand

State Archives, Honolulu, Hawaii

San Francisco Public Library

National Art Library at the Victoria & Albert Museum, London

National Library of Australia

The State Library of South Australia

The National Library of New Zealand

Central Library, Hull

Leisure Services Department, Chiswick Public Library, England

Federation of British Artists, London

Royal Academy of Arts, London

Courtauld Institute of Art, London

Australian National Gallery

Ferens Art Gallery, Hull

Cartwight Hall Art Gallery, Bradford

Walker Gallery, Liverpool

City Art Gallery, Leeds

Christie's, London

Sotheby's, London

Phillips, London

Bonhams, London